Various conditions affect the eye being a visual organ together with the structures surrounding it. Ophthalmology as a division of medicine deals with anatomy of the eye and the diseases that affect the visual system. A physician called an ophthalmologist who performs therapy of the condition and also micro-surgical operation carries out the treatment and diagnosis of the eye. These professionals are highly trained to treat serious eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and macular degeneration.
Glaucoma – a disease that affects the optic nerve, which is a nerve responsible for the transmission of the images seen by the eye all the way to the brain. The optic nerve is made up of several nerve fibers forming a network of nerve fibers. Glaucoma badly damages nerve fibers, thus can cause blind spots and loss of vision. It is highly related to the intraocular pressure (IOP). When the aqueous humor fails to drain itself properly, pressure builds up inside the eye. Therefore this increase in IOP damages the optic nerve resulting in loss of vision. There are several types of glaucoma that is Open-Angle glaucoma, which occurs when the aqueous fluid gets blocked from flowing back at a normal rate. The second type of glaucoma is the Angle Closure Glaucoma in which the iris drops over completely and closes off the drainage angle, thus abruptly blocks the flow of aqueous fluid and resulting in increased IOP or damage of the optic nerve.
Tests for Glaucoma
Since glaucoma lacks identifiable symptoms, it requires regular examination of the eye. The following tests are carried out; Tonometry, that is the measure of the intraocular pressure. Genioscopy is where the physician inspects the angle of the eye drainage. Ophthalmoscopy is where the surgeon looks at the fundus to evaluate whether the optic never is damaged among other tests. Glaucoma lacks a cure, proper management can only control it, but its treatment is majorly focused on lowering the IOP to a target pressure. Cataracts are a condition where the eye lens becomes cloudy leading to obstruction of vision. Eye spectacles are normally used to correct errors caused by cataracts at an early stage. Aging mainly causes this eye defect.
In order to reduce the dependence of patients on prescription eyeglasses and the contact lenses, a refractive surgery is undertaken to correct the common vision problems. The most popular kind of such surgeries is the LASIK(LAY-sik).The choice of any refractive surgery depends on the needs of the patient. In this surgery, the surgeon in operation uses a microkeratome blade to create a thin material in the cornea, which is folded back, and some tissue removed. For the shortsighted people, the objective of this operation is to even the cornea that tends to be too steep and as for the longsighted a cornea that is sharp is required. Astigmatism can also be corrected by shaping the cornea to be regular. After the laser reshapes the cornea, the tissue is then placed back in carefully, to cover the area where the tissue from cornea was removed. Before undertaking a LASIK surgery, one should consider to select a qualified or rather professional LASIK surgeon who will advise them of whether LASIK is good for them or not. This stage is important in order to avoid errors that occur during surgery as a result perhaps poor choice of the surgical procedure. The surgeon will examine the health of the eyes in order to determine the correction needed. This surgery takes the shortest time possible, its also an outpatient procedure thus one needs to remain overnight at the patient center. The moistness of the eyes is also evaluated and some treatment recommended in order to reduce the chances of getting dry eyes after LASIK. The corneal topographer is used to measure the curvature of the front area of the eye and come up with a map of your eye. Before the operation, the patient is given some sedatives to relax and also they eyes are dropped some numbing eye drops. LASIK procedure. Some sort of clip is used to ensure the eyelids are open to avoid distracting the surgeon. The surgeon then marks it using an ink marker before creating the flap. A suction ring is applied to the front of your eye to prevent eye movement or loss of contact that could affect flap quality. After creation of the corneal flap, a computer is then used to adjust the excimer refractor for the prescription. The patient is then asked to directly look at the illuminated light for a fraction of a minute while the surgeon watches the eye through a microscope as the refractor sends some pulses of illumination to the cornea. The laser light pulses then reshapes the cornea painlessly, although one may feel some bit of pressure on the eye. The will also be a steady clicking sound while the laser is under operation. LASIK is normally separately on each eye. After LASIKO completion of the LASIK surgery, the surgeon then lets the patient rest a bit. One may feel burning or itching sensation immediately following the procedure, which then fades away. One cannot drive after LASIK. One should expect some kind of blurry vision and haziness immediately after surgery, which should improve with time.
Introduction to Migraine
This is a severely painful headache normally felt on one side of the head that can be triggered by environmental factors, stress or hormones. Its been observed to be more common in women, say 75% after puberty. Migraine occurs in four phases; Prodrome phase that is character irritability, fatigue, altered mood, constipation and also diarrhea, this happens before pain. The second phase is the aura where one experiences blurred vision and flickering which may also be accompanied by spinning world, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sound and to smells. The third phase is postdrome where one feels some sort of hung over, weakness and impaired thinking. Symptoms of migraine Headache pains radiating towards the eye are nausea, vomiting, problems in vision and sensitivity to light. Causes No one understands neurological causes of migraine. However, flashing lights, anxiety and stress and hormonal changes among other factors can trigger it. Diagnosis Migraines are usually diagnosed using the clinical history of symptoms; most doctors, which you can find on Dr. George W. Rozakis social media perform a brain scan to determine if other causes of headaches are present. Treatment Triptans and Ergotamines are the prescribed medication.